Fats, Fish and Fiber, Oh My!

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FATS

-There are 4 different kinds of dietary fats.

-The bad fats AKA saturated/Trans saturated

-The healthier fats AKA MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acids)/PUFA (poly unsaturated fatty acids)

1.
Saturated come primarily from animals and are solid at room temp i.e. shortening, butter, margarine, bacon fat, coconut/palm oil. These are associated with raising cholesterol and increasing the risk of cardio disease and type 2 diabetes. Limit consumption

2.
Trans saturated fats are created by food processing. Foods high in these fats are cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries and doughnuts. These fats have been shown to raise HDL (bad) and lower LDL (good) which again increases cardiovascular disease (HEART ATTACK/STROKE). Avoid consumption

-2005 Dietary Guidelines and Institute of Medicine recommend that 20-35% of calories come mostly from unsaturated fats and saturated fat should not exceed 7-10% of daily cal.

TIPS:

-Use fats/oils sparingly, selecting PUFA AND MUFA

-Drink nonfat or low fat milk (1%) and choose low fat or nonfat versions of yogurt and sour cream.

-Limit amount of cheese

-Choose mustard, ketchup and other low fat spreads instead of regular salad dressings and mayonnaise (Miracle Whip)

-Limit eggs to 2-3/week or substitute for egg whites and get the cholesterol free version

-Cut down on bakery/snack foods i.e. cakes, cookies, pastries because even low fat versions can be high in calories

3.
MUFA primarily come from plant sources and are liquid at room temp but turn solid when refrigerated i.e. avocados, olives, almonds, peanut butter, olive oil, canola oil and peanut oil. Consume in moderation

4.
PUFA come from plant and animal sources and are both liquid at room temp and when refrigerated.

>> 2 types of PUFA’s: Omega-6 which are most cooking oils (safflower, sesame, corn, sunflower seed-as well as poultry/pork fat and some fish (catfish/tilapia); associated with causing inflammation and aggravating chronic diseases. Limit consumption.

NOTE: Flax seeds and flax seed oil contain short chain omega-3. The majority of people of European descent do NOT have the correct genes to convert the short chain to long chain omega-3’s, though African descent are more likely to be able to convert them, however since some still may not be able to it is a better choice to get your PUFA from fish oil and make the PRIMARY benefit of flax seed/flax seed oil of being used for its high fiber content.

FISH

Omega-3 which are found primarily in fish i.e. salmon (wild Alaskan 1gm EPA/DHA), mackerel, trout, albacore tuna, fish oils and flax seed oil. Omega-3 are also associated with being anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective. Also protective against arthritis, cognitive loss, depression, diabetes and aging. There are 3 types… 1. ALA (alpha linololenic acid)-flax seed oil 2. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)-fish/fish oil supplements 3. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)-fish/fish oil supplements. Different fish contain different amounts and cold water marine fish are the BEST source. Consume in high amounts (4-6 servings a week). If using a supplement find one that is enteric coated, which aids in digestion. If you’re healthy then 500 mg of EPA/DHA combined are acceptable, but if you have disease or have a family history of inflammatory disease then 1,000 mg is recommended. Stay within a range of 1,000-3,000/day. Catfish/tilapia contain little to no omega-3 and are high in omega-6, so they are NOT RECOMMENDED.

FISH CONTAINING HIGH AMOUNTS OF OMEGA-3’S:

Fish

Amount

Omega-3 mg

Atlantic Salmon (farmed)

3.5 oz.

3063

Pink Salmon (canned)

3.5 oz

1699

Atlantic Mackerel

3.5 oz

1512

Coho Salmon

3.5 oz.

1317

Bluefin Tuna

3.5 oz.

1298

Albacore Tuna (canned/water)

3.5 oz.

1084

FISH CONTAINING MODERATE AMOUNTS OF OMEGA-3’S:

Fish

Amount

Omega-3 mg

Trout

3.5 oz.

913

Tuna (canned/water)

3.5 oz.

880

Black Bass

3.5 oz.

789

Sockeye Salmon

3.5 oz.

757

Sea Bass

3.5 oz.

671

Swordfish

3.5 oz.

639

Wild Alaskan Salmon (canned)

3.5 oz.

630

Oysters

3.5 oz.

622

Shrimp

3.5 oz.

528

FISH CONTAINING LOW AMOUNTS OF OMEGA-3’S:

Fish

Amount

Omega-3 mg

Halibut

3.5 oz.

457

Tuna

3.5 oz.

406

Snapper

3.5 oz.

376

Perch

3.5 oz.

314

Mahi Mahi

3.5 oz.

282

Red Snapper

3.5 oz.

274

Grouper

3.5 oz.

257

Flounder

3.5 oz.

245

Cod

3.5 oz.

194

Alaskan King Crab

3.5 oz.

130

FIBER

 

-Fiber is the key to losing weight without feeling hungry. Fiber signals the satiety genes that help us to feel full.

Women need 25 mg and Men 35 mg/day of fiber

-There are 2 kinds of fiber: soluble (dissolves in water) and insoluble (does not dissolve in water)

-Soluble is found in oat bran, oatmeal, beans, peas, barley, citrus fruits, strawberries and apples

-Insoluble are found in whole wheat bread and cereals, cabbage, beets, carrots, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower.

-25-30% should come from soluble—the more the better. Example for every 25 gm at least 6-8 Gm should be soluble fiber

-It is ideal to get fiber from whole foods rather than supplements

-To avoid constipation DRINK MORE WATER AND EAT MORE SOLUBLE FIBER
i.e. fruits, veggies and beans

TIPS:

-Choose more whole or multi grain breads. Look for whole wheat or whole grain flour as the FIRST ingredient.

-Start the day with whole grain cereal

-Try adding ¼ cup of wheat bran to foods i.e. cereal, pancakes, applesauce, yogurt or meat loaf

-When baking substitute whole wheat flour for half of the white flour

-Mix at least ½ refined pasta with whole grain pasta or white rice with brown rice in dishes

-Increase intake of beans, lentils, soybeans, and peas; use them instead of meat in casseroles or other dishes

-Add legumes, wheat bran or other grains to soups, pasta, and salads

-Leave the skin on fruits and veggies i.e. apples, pears, peaches and potatoes

-Add fresh or dried fruit to cereal/salads

Read label: foods with 2.5+ gm of fiber per serving are good sources as are foods with 20%+ DV for fiber. Foods containing 5+ gm fiber are considered EXCELLENT (Wasa crisp & light crackers contain 2 gm/3 slices)

 

***Types of whole grains:

Whole wheat, wild rice, brown rice, buckwheat, whole grain corn, whole oats/oatmeal, barley, whole rye, bulgur(cracked wheat), popcorn, millet, quinoa, sorghum, amaranth and triticale(hybrid of rye and wheat)

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